Julia Kristeva Όταν μελετούσαμε Ντελέζ το λέγαμε Χάοσμο. The meaning of the apparent ahistoricity of drawing is determined by the other technologies of representation that co-exist with it at any given moment.
This effect itself is a historical construct. And if writing with light began by imitating drawing, as analog photography itself becomes an archaic medium, drawing will aspire to the condition of the photograph, not as a projective representation, but rather as a resemblance produced by contact.
As verb or as noun, drawing will appear απώλεια βάρους υποχώρηση crowhurst when considered in relation to painting or to writing, to sculpture or printmaking, to photography, film, or digital media. Because the field of available technologies is constantly shifting, this kind of relational definition of drawing would also need to be acknowledged as historically contingent. This essay explores some ways in which our conception of drawing is reconfigured by the arrival of digital media.
That is, how concepts and processes associated with the analogue are particularly attuned to articulating the kinds of conversions involved in embodied perception, as well as the intensive or affective register of those processes. This shift in emphasis draws the discussion away somewhat from the issue of medium specificity, and towards more phenomenological questions regarding duration and embodiment, which are nevertheless crucial in thinking about the production and reception of drawings.
In the works discussed here, both artists specifically dramatise the relationship between drawing and film; both have explicitly embraced anachronistic απώλεια βάρους υποχώρηση crowhurst obsolete objects and technologies; and both have also spoken of a connection between their drawing process and particular modes of thinking.
In an analogue microphone, for example, a continuous sound wave is converted or transduced into an electrical signal, with each modulation in amplitude registered in a corresponding change in voltage.
An analogue signal can also be translated into digital data in a process involving two steps: sampling and quantisation. Here, a continuous signal is converted into a series of discrete units, each being then assigned a numerical value.
This process inevitably involves some loss of information, depending upon the frequency απώλεια βάρους υποχώρηση crowhurst which samples are taken sampling rate and how finely the output values are differentiated resolution. This possibility is enabled by the fact that digital data is composed of the most basic differential units, to which it can be decoded, edited if desired, and then re-encoded into another output format.
This enables Friedrich Kittler to announce: The general digitalization of channels and information erases the differences among individual media. Sound and image, voice and text are reduced to surface effects, known to consumers as interface … Inside the computers themselves, everything becomes a number: quantity without image, sound, or voice. And once optical fibre networks turn formerly distinct data flows into a standardized series of digitalized numbers, any medium can be translated into any other.
Περιοδική συλλογή στοιχείων by Katerina Athanasiou - Issuu
With numbers, everything goes. Modulation, transformation, synchronization; delay, storage, transposition; scrambling, scanning, mapping — a total media link on a digital base will erase the very concept of medium. Instead of wiring people and technologies, absolute knowledge will run as an absolute loop.
The analogue image, by contrast, is the product of photochemical processes that do not have recourse to any such απώλεια βάρους υποχώρηση crowhurst coding in their qualitative conversions of light.
Debates concerning the impact of digital media on existing visual technologies have so far centred on lens-based media. Indeed, the extraordinary new potentials for image making and image manipulation offered by digital tools have rendered analogue photography and film all but obsolete in the everyday world, with major companies discontinuing their production lines.
Φωκάς και Β. Λαγούδης και Β. ΚονταξάκηςΑναπληρωτής προέδρου:Ι. Ζέρβας, Μ. Μαργαρίτη, Δ.
Digital drawing tools have afforded artists and designers an extraordinary array of capacities to produce, store, overlay, rework and duplicate graphic schemes. The mouse or stylus replace conventional drawing tools, and the frictionless luminosity of the computer monitor is substituted for the tactile grain of the paper sheet. Since the s, digital drawing tablets have been available for the home computer. Here, a πόσο απώλεια βάρους ισούται με μια ίντσα surface acts as a page, with the drawn image usually appearing 33 ετών γυναικεία απώλεια βάρους a separate monitor.
Moreover, the materiality of drawing is not only important to the mark as it is inscribed, but also as it is removed. In the process of writing or drawing on a computer, απώλεια βάρους υποχώρηση απώλεια βάρους υποχώρηση crowhurst is very easy to delete a pixel or character, instantly removing it from view. Cinematic drawing Fig.
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They describe the progress of a sea adventure, complete with raging storms, an imperilled crew and an eventual homecoming. By the sixth board, a close-up of the swell with no horizon, the storm has subsided, and the seventh and last board offers a happy ending as the surviving sailors row into frame and towards dry land. As its full title suggests, the series was made over seven days, with Dean working in situ at The Drawing Center in New York.
The blackboards retain the foggy traces of erased and re-worked passages, particularly evident in Boards II and VI. The visible work of erasure further foregrounds the απώλεια βάρους υποχώρηση crowhurst απώλεια βάρους υποχώρηση crowhurst of the drawings, with the time and labour of their making openly exhibited on the surface of each board.
The Roaring Forties takes its place within a series of blackboard works by Dean relating to the sea. I need that for working with the chalk. They are a kind of performance. The drawings were made at the beginning ofjust a few months after Dean completed her breakthrough film, Disappearance at Seawhich she famously related to the ill-fated sea voyage of amateur sailor Donald Crowhurst.
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As darkness descends, the bulb is illuminated and projects its rays into the night. In the slow final shots, the sense of fragility and isolation is palpable, as the beam is all but smothered by the gathering darkness. The film closes with a finger of light cutting through the blackness with a slight, glancing beam, which barely picks out details of the rocky cliffs and the shifting surface of the night sea.
Walking out of the darkened room in which the film was installed and into the neighbouring space with these cinematic blackboards, it was difficult to avoid the rhyme between that fragile beam of light projected into the night and the white chalk marks which emerge from their black απώλεια βάρους υποχώρηση crowhurst. Somehow, they are films. The boards evidence the time of their making, whilst also re-shuffling the chronology of that process; they constitute static objects, but it is also hardly possible to resist animating them while we look, given the many and varied cues provided by the artist.
Dean has herself commented that these boards fuse the conventions of the storyboard with those of the production still: both the before and the απώλεια βάρους υποχώρηση crowhurst of the cinematic event. Celluloid film is composed of a linear sequence of discrete but continuous photographic stills, which are passed through the projection apparatus to give an illusion of movement, the eye filling in the infinitesimal gaps between frames. Each frame is an index of a moment in time, automatically registering the fall of light across its surface, a field which will therefore include a host of contingent and unintended details.
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Drawings, too, are composed of a series of indexical traces, sometimes remaining discrete and sometimes not. Each drawn mark, whatever else it also does, refers to a passage of activity, and these traces then combine on a single surface to produce an image whose reception happens in time and involves movement, although that movement of course belongs to the eye and mind of the viewer rather than the mechanical projection apparatus.
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Likewise, the gaps between marks are also dilated and indeterminate. Drawing couples the actively willed with the passively received, the intentionally directed with the non-conscious desires of the hand.
Such attention would encourage an exploration of the drawing process, and specifically of what happens in the temporal gaps between strokes. The working practice of William Kentridge is particularly suggestive in this regard. Kentridge begins drawing with a stick of charcoal and at intervals walks to his film camera, shoots one or two frames, then returns to the drawing; he makes marginal erasures, re-photographs and then redraws.
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There was no feeling of what a good idea I had had, rather, relief at not having overlooked what was in front of me. I use a fairly heavy piece of charcoal, about one and a half inches in diameter.