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The meaning of the apparent ahistoricity of drawing is determined by the other technologies of representation that co-exist with it at any given moment. This effect itself is a historical construct. And if writing with light began by imitating drawing, as analog photography itself becomes an archaic medium, drawing will aspire to the condition of the photograph, not as a projective representation, but rather as a resemblance produced by contact.
As verb or as noun, drawing will appear differently when considered in relation to painting or to writing, to sculpture or printmaking, to photography, film, or digital media.
Because the field of available technologies is constantly shifting, this kind of relational definition of drawing would also need to be acknowledged as historically contingent.
This essay explores some ways in which our conception of drawing is reconfigured by the arrival of digital media. That is, how concepts and processes associated with the analogue are particularly attuned to articulating the kinds of conversions involved in embodied perception, as well as the intensive or affective register of those processes. This shift in emphasis draws the discussion away somewhat from the issue of medium specificity, and towards more phenomenological questions απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma duration and embodiment, which are nevertheless crucial in thinking about the production and reception of drawings.
In the works discussed here, both artists specifically dramatise the relationship between drawing and film; both have explicitly embraced anachronistic or obsolete objects and technologies; and both have also spoken of a connection between their drawing process and particular modes of thinking.
In an analogue microphone, for example, a continuous sound wave is converted or transduced into an electrical signal, with each modulation in amplitude registered in a corresponding change in voltage.
An analogue signal can also be translated into digital data in a process involving two steps: sampling and quantisation. Here, a continuous signal is converted into a series of discrete units, each being then assigned a numerical value.
This process inevitably involves some loss of information, depending upon the frequency with which samples are taken sampling rate and how finely the output values are differentiated resolution. This possibility is enabled by the fact that digital data is composed of the most basic differential units, to which it can be decoded, edited if desired, and then re-encoded into another output format. This enables Απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma Kittler to announce: The general digitalization of channels and information erases the differences among individual media.
Sound and image, voice and text are reduced to surface effects, known to consumers as interface … Inside the computers themselves, everything becomes a number: quantity without image, sound, or voice. And once optical fibre networks turn formerly distinct data flows into a standardized series of digitalized numbers, any medium can be translated into any other.
With numbers, everything goes. Modulation, transformation, synchronization; delay, storage, transposition; scrambling, scanning, mapping — a total media link on a digital base will erase the very concept of medium.
Instead of wiring people and technologies, absolute knowledge will run as an absolute loop. The analogue image, by contrast, is the product of photochemical processes that do not have recourse to any such intermediate coding in their qualitative conversions of light. Debates concerning the impact of digital media on existing visual technologies have so far centred on lens-based media.
Indeed, the extraordinary new potentials for image making and image manipulation offered by digital tools have rendered analogue απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma and film all but obsolete in the everyday world, with major companies discontinuing their production lines.
Digital drawing tools have afforded artists and designers an extraordinary array of capacities to produce, store, overlay, rework and duplicate graphic schemes. The mouse or stylus replace conventional drawing tools, and the frictionless απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma of the computer monitor is substituted for the tactile grain απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma the paper sheet.
Since the s, digital drawing tablets have been available for the home computer. Here, a sensitised surface acts as a page, with the drawn image usually appearing on a separate monitor. Moreover, the materiality of drawing is not only important to the mark as it is inscribed, but also as it is removed. In the process of writing or drawing on a computer, it is very easy to delete a pixel or character, instantly removing it from view.
Cinematic drawing Fig. They describe the progress of a sea adventure, complete with raging storms, an imperilled crew and an eventual homecoming. By the sixth board, a close-up of the swell with no horizon, the storm has subsided, and the seventh and last board offers a happy ending as the surviving sailors row into frame and towards dry land.
As its full title suggests, the series was made over seven days, with Dean working in situ at The Drawing Center in New York. The blackboards retain the foggy traces of erased and re-worked passages, particularly evident in Boards II and VI.
The visible work of erasure further foregrounds the performative dimension of the drawings, with the time and labour of their making openly exhibited on the surface of each board. The Roaring Forties takes its place within a series of blackboard works by Dean relating to the sea.
I need that for working with the chalk. They are a kind of performance. The drawings were made at the beginning ofjust a few months απώλεια βάρους nsv Dean completed her breakthrough film, Disappearance at Seawhich she famously related to the ill-fated sea voyage of amateur sailor Donald Crowhurst.
As darkness descends, the bulb is illuminated and projects its rays into the night. In the slow final shots, the sense of fragility and isolation is palpable, as the beam is all but smothered by the gathering darkness. The film closes with a finger of light cutting through the blackness with a slight, glancing beam, which barely picks out details of the rocky cliffs and the shifting surface of the night sea. Απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma out of the darkened room in which the film was installed and into the neighbouring space with these cinematic blackboards, it was difficult to avoid the rhyme between that fragile beam of light projected into the night and the white chalk marks which emerge from their black ground.
Somehow, they are films. The boards evidence the time of their making, whilst also re-shuffling the chronology of that process; they constitute static objects, but it is also hardly possible to resist animating them while we look, given the many and varied cues provided by the artist.
Dean has herself commented that these boards fuse the conventions of the storyboard with those of the production still: both the before and the after of the cinematic event. Celluloid film is composed of a linear sequence of discrete but continuous photographic stills, which are passed through the projection apparatus to give an illusion of movement, the eye filling in the infinitesimal gaps between frames.
Each frame is an index τρώνε στη συντήρηση για να χάσουν βάρος a moment in time, automatically registering the fall of light across its surface, a field which will therefore include a host of contingent and unintended details.
Drawings, too, are composed of a series of indexical traces, sometimes remaining discrete and sometimes not. Each drawn mark, whatever else it also does, refers to a passage of activity, and these traces απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma combine on a single surface to produce an image whose reception happens in time and involves movement, although that movement of course belongs to the eye and mind of the viewer rather than the mechanical απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma apparatus.
Likewise, the gaps between marks are also dilated and indeterminate.
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- Posted on 27 Φεβρουαρίου, by savepramnos Στον οδηγό αυτό, ξεδιπλώνονται τα κύρια επιχειρήματα της αιολικής βιομηχανίας, που είναι όμοια σε όλα τα μήκη και πλάτη της γης, και τα συνήθη παράπονα που διατυπώνονται από τοπικές κοινωνίες, όπου έχουν εγκατασταθεί αιολικοί σταθμοί.
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Drawing couples the actively willed with the απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma received, the intentionally directed with the non-conscious desires of the hand. Such attention would encourage an exploration of the drawing process, and specifically of what happens in the temporal gaps between strokes. The working practice of William Kentridge is particularly suggestive in απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma regard. Kentridge begins drawing with a stick of charcoal and at intervals walks to his film camera, shoots one or two frames, then returns to the drawing; he makes marginal erasures, re-photographs and then redraws.
There was no feeling of what a good idea I had had, rather, relief at not having overlooked what was in front of me. I use a fairly heavy piece of charcoal, about one and a half inches in diameter.
The crudeness of it is important for me. A space for many different trajectories of an image, where sequences can suggest απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma, to be tested as internal projections.
This pacing is often in relation to the sheet of paper waiting on the wall. As if the physical presence of the paper is necessary for the internal projections to seem realizable.
The physical size and material enforce a scale, a particular starting point, a composition. The myriad of possibilities is called to order. In an era in which the human labour in everything was clear, there was something utopian in making art appear effortless or at least miraculous.
Now that we take the impossible for granted — digital animation, Photoshop the invisible workings of a computer compared to the very visible and audible mechanics of a typewriter — there seems a place for showing physical process. And through this mental process; this is not clear, but some impulse in this direction sits in my guts — not that they are to be trusted either.
Not to say that this is necessarily an accurate image, and even though labour is less visible in Western Europe and North America, I do understand it is still there — but the image and its shame are more present here.
The work consists of a series of sixteen photographs each 50 x 50cm of a single blackboard, απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma the artist over a period of weeks whilst studying at the Slade in the exact timing of each photograph and the length of the intervals between shots were not recorded.
The photographs offer a fragmentary record of a working studio tool, the panel having functioned as a screen for the projection of thought, indexed in the form of sketches, diagrams and notes, rapidly set down and soon rubbed απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma.
Rather than charting the progress of a single project, Sixteen Blackboards witnesses the emergence, recession and sometimes cohabitation of several lines of enquiry emerging simultaneously.
While many images clearly relate to απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma films made by Dean, many drawings and notes remain unanchored from particular works realised in film. The introduction of collaged elements, complete upon arrival and removed with no residue, foils this cloudy texture of inscription and unbecoming.
The use of the blackboard as an artistic device evokes the examples of Cy Twombly and Joseph Beuys, two important artists for Dean. As Canadian theorist Brian Massumi has argued: There is no thought that is not accompanied by a physical sensation of effort or agitation if only a knitting of the brows, a pursing of the lips, or a quickening of the heartbeat.
This sensation, which may be muscular proprioceptivetactile, or visceral is backgrounded. It means that it appears as a background against which the conscious thought stands out: its felt environment. The words appear on screen, in being read. Reading is the qualitative transformation απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma alphabetical figures into figures of speech and thought. This is an analogue process. Like electricity into sound waves. Or heat into pain. Or light waves into vision.
Or vision into imagination … Or outside coming in. Variable continuity across the qualitatively different: continuity of transformation. To pursue this might be to shift emphasis from the registration of thought in the act of making, towards a consideration of the way in which the object is de-actualised in thought upon reception.
This might serve to counter the affective atmosphere of nostalgia that απώλεια βάρους falmouth ma pervades a consideration of the attachment to the analogue in a digital age, by directing the purchase of the term analogue to the liveliness generated at the interface of artworks and bodies rather than to a given set of visual technologies only.
Finally, the category of drawing, too, may be seen as re-energised as it enters into transformative relation with the other visual technologies with which it shares space; and in maintaining contact with these new forms, the qualities and capacities of existing modes of drawing are given new visibility and purchase.
Useful surveys of this material include, Theodora Vischer and Isabel Friedli eds.